Afonso I 'o Conquistador' "'The Conqueror' of Portugal" Henriques, rei de Portugal

Nació:25 de Jul de 1110 En:  Guimaraes, Braga, Portugal
Murió:6 de Dic de 1185 (a la edad de 75)En:  Coimbra, Portugal
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Familia Inmediata

Mafalda "Mahaut or Matilda (in Portuguese always as Mafalda)" de Sabóia, regina consorte del Portogallo
Su esposa
Urraca Affonsez "of Portugal" de Portugal, rainha de Leão
Su hija
  

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Grand maãitre de l'ordre d'Aviz

Biografía

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal (English)

 

Afonso I de Portugal

Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_de_Portugal

 

Ordem: 1.º Monarca de Portugal

Cognome: O Conquistador

Início do Reinado: 5 de Dezembro de 1143

Término do Reinado: 6 de Dezembro de 1185

Sucessor: D. Sancho I

Pai: D. Henrique, Conde de Portucale

Mãe: D. Teresa, Infanta de Leão

Data de Nascimento: 1109 (c)

Local de Nascimento: Guimarães, Viseu ou Coimbra

Data de Falecimento: 6 de Dezembro de 1185

Local de Falecimento: Coimbra

Local de Enterro: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, Coimbra

Consorte(s): Mafalda (Matilde) de Sabóia

Príncipe Herdeiro: Infante D. Henrique (filho; 1147-1157); Infante D. Sancho (filho; 1157-1185)

 

Descendência:

Pela sua mulher, Mafalda de Sabóia ou Matilde de Sabóia (1125-1157), que desposou c. 1146:

1) D. Henrique (1147-?)

2) D. Mafalda de Portugal (1149-1160), teve o seu casamento programado com o rei de Afonso II de Aragão, o que não se efectivou pela morte da infanta

3) D. Urraca (1151-1188), casou com o rei Fernando II de Leão

4) D. Sancha de Portugal (1153-1159)

5) Sancho I de Portugal (1154-1212)

6) D. João de Portugal (1156)

7) D. Teresa (1157-1218), depois do casamento chamada Matilde ou Mafalda, casou com Filipe I, Conde da Flandres e depois com Eudes III, Duque da Borgonha

 

Filha de Elvira Gálter:

1) D. Urraca Afonso, senhora de Aveiro (c. 1130-?), casou com D. Pedro Afonso Viegas, Tenente de Neiva e de Trancoso.

 

Outros filhos naturais:

1) D. Fernando Afonso, também nomeado D. Afonso de Portugal, alferes-mor do Reino e 12º Grão-Mestre da Ordem dos Hospitalários (1135-1207)

2) D. Pedro Afonso (c. 1140-1189)

3) D. Teresa Afonso (c. 1135-?)

 

Afonso I de Portugal, mais conhecido pelo seu nome de conde, Dom Afonso Henriques, (1109 (?) — 6 de Dezembro de 1185) foi o primeiro rei de Portugal, conquistando a independência portuguesa em relação ao Reino de Leão em 1143 no tratado de Zamora.

 

Em virtude das suas múltiplas conquistas, que ao longo de mais de quarenta anos mais que duplicaram o território que o seu pai lhe havia legado, foi cognominado O Conquistador; também é conhecido como O Fundador e O Grande. Os muçulmanos, em sinal de respeito, chamaram-lhe Ibn-Arrik («filho de Henrique», tradução literal do patronímico Henriques) ou El-Bortukali («o Português»).

 

Afonso Henriques era filho de Henrique de Borgonha, Conde de Portucale e da infanta Teresa de Leão. Há quem defenda que era filho de Egas Moniz. A data e local do seu nascimento não estão determinados de forma inequívoca. Hoje em dia, a data que reúne maior consenso aponta para o ano de 1109. Almeida Fernandes, autor da hipótese que indica Viseu como local de nascimento de D. Afonso Henriques refere a probabilidade de ter nascido em Agosto enquanto outros autores, baseando-se em documentos que remontam ao século XIII referem a data de 25 de Julho do mesmo ano. No entanto, já foram defendidas outras datas e locais para o nascimento do primeiro rei de Portugal, como o ano de 1106 ou de 1111 (hipótese avançada por Alexandre Herculano após a sua leitura da "Crónica dos Godos"). Tradicionalmente, acredita-se que terá nascido e sido criado em Guimarães, onde viveu até 1128. Outros autores, ainda, referem Coimbra como local provável para o seu nascimento.

 

Em 1120, Afonso tomou uma posição política oposta à da mãe (que apoiava o partido dos Travas), sob a direcção do arcebispo de Braga D. Paio Mendes. Este, forçado a emigrar, levou consigo o infante que em 1122 se armou cavaleiro em Tui.

 

Restabelecida a paz, voltaram ao condado. Entretanto, novos incidentes provocaram a invasão do Condado Portucalense por Afonso VII de Leão e Castela que, em 1127, cercou Guimarães, onde se encontrava Afonso Henriques. Sendo-lhe prometida a lealdade deste pelo seu aio Egas Moniz, Afonso VII desistiu de conquistar a cidade.

 

Mas alguns meses depois, em 1128, as tropas de Teresa de Leão e Fernão Peres de Trava defrontaram-se com as de Afonso Henriques na batalha de São Mamede, tendo as tropas do infante saído vitoriosas – o que consagrou a sua autoridade no território portucalense, levando-o a assumir o governo do condado. Consciente da importância das forças que ameaçavam o seu poder, concentrou os seus esforços em negociações junto da Santa Sé com um duplo objectivo: alcançar a plena autonomia da Igreja portuguesa e obter o reconhecimento do Reino.

 

Em 1139, depois de uma estrondosa vitória na batalha de Ourique contra um forte contingente mouro, D. Afonso Henriques autoproclamou-se rei de Portugal, com o apoio das suas tropas. Segundo a tradição, a independência foi confirmada mais tarde, nas míticas cortes de Lamego, quando recebeu a coroa de Portugal do arcebispo de Braga, D. João Peculiar, se bem que estudos recentes questionem a reunião destas cortes.

 

O reconhecimento do Reino de Leão e de Castela chegou em 1143, com o tratado de Zamora, e deve-se ao desejo de Afonso VII de Leão e Castela em tomar o título de imperador de toda a Hispânia e, como tal, necessitar de reis como vassalos. Desde então, Afonso I procurou consolidar a independência por si declarada. Fez importantes doações à Igreja e fundou diversos conventos.

 

Procurou também conquistar terreno a sul, povoado então por mouros: Leiria em 1135 (1145, conquista final) usando a técnica de assalto; Santarém em 1146 (1147, conquista final), também utilizando a técnica de assalto; Lisboa (onde utilizou o cerco como táctica de conquista, graças à ajuda dos cruzados), Almada e Palmela em 1147, Alcácer em 1160 e depois quase todo o Alentejo, que posteriormente seria recuperado pelos mouros, pouco antes de D. Afonso falecer (em 1185).

 

Em 1179 o Papa Alexandre III reconheceu Portugal como país independente e vassalo da Igreja, através da Bula Manifestis Probatum.

 

De 1166 a 1168, D. Afonso Henriques apoderara-se de várias praças pertencentes à coroa leonesa. Fernando II de Leão estava a repovoar Ciudad Rodrigo e o português, suspeitando que o seu genro estava a fortificar a cidade para o atacar, enviou um exército comandado pelo seu filho, o infante D. Sancho, contra aquela praça. O rei leonês foi em auxílio da cidade ameaçada e derrotou as tropas portuguesas, fazendo um grande número de prisioneiros.

 

Em resposta, D. Afonso Henriques entrou pela Galiza, tomou Tui e vários outros castelos, e em 1169 atacou primeiro Cáceres. Depois voltou-se contra Badajoz na posse dos sarracenos, mas que pertenceria a Leão, conforme o acordado no tratado de Sahagún assinado entre aquele reino e Castela.

 

Não obstante, sem respeitar estas convenções nem os laços de parentesco que o uniam a Fernando, o rei português cercou Badajoz para a conquistar para Portugal. Quando os muçulmanos já estavam cercados na alcáçova, Fernando de Leão apresentou-se com as suas hostes e atacou D. Afonso nas ruas da cidade. Percebendo a impossibilidade de manter a luta, Afonso terá tentado fugir a cavalo, mas ao passar pelas portas ter-se-á ferido na coxa contra um dos ferros que a guarneciam. Fernando tratou o seu sogro prisioneiro com nobreza e generosidade, chamando os seus melhores médicos para o tratar.

 

Esta campanha teve como resultado um tratado de paz entre ambos os reinos, assinado em Pontevedra, em virtude do qual Afonso foi libertado, com a única condição de devolver a Fernando cidades extremenhas (da Extremadura espanhola) tais como Cáceres, Badajoz, Trujillo, Santa Cruz , Monfragüe e Montánchez, que havia conquistado a Leão. Estabeleciam-se assim as fronteiras de Portugal com Leão e a Galiza. E mais tarde, quando os muçulmanos sitiaram Santarém, o leonês auxiliou imediatamente o rei português.

 

Após o incidente de Badajoz, a carreira militar de D. Afonso Henriques praticamente terminou. A partir daí, dedicou-se à administração dos territórios com a co-regência do seu filho D. Sancho. Procurou fixar a população, promoveu o municipalismo e concedeu forais. Contou com a ajuda da ordem religiosa dos cistercienses para o desenvolvimento da economia, predominantemente agrária.

 

O legado do seu reinado foi, entre outros:

A fundação da nacionalidade, reconhecida pelo papado e pelos outros reinos da Europa;

A pacificação interna do reino e alargamento do território através de conquistas aos mouros empurrando as fronteiras do Condado Portucalense para sul.

A fundação do Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra em 1131

O seu túmulo encontra-se no Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, em Coimbra, ao lado do túmulo do filho D. Sancho I.

 

O reinado de Afonso Henriques ficou marcado pela tolerância para com os judeus. Estes estavam organizados num sistema próprio, representados politicamente pelo grão-rabino nomeado pelo rei.

 

O grão-rabino Yahia Ben Yahia foi mesmo escolhido para ministro das Finanças de Afonso Henriques, responsável pela coleta de impostos no reino. Com esta escolha teve início uma tradição de escolher judeus para a área financeira e de manter um bom entendimento com as comunidades judaicas, que foi seguida por seus sucessores.

 

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Titles: King of Portugal 1139 - 1185

Died of unknown causes at age 75

In 1128 defeated his mother in battle. She was his regent

In 1139 he won Portugal's independence for Leon in a decisive battle over the Moors at Quirque. He then declared himself Portugal's first king.

Ancestors

 

Afonso I, King of Portugal, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques, (July 25, 1109 – December 6, 1185), also known as the Conqueror, was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León. He played a major role in reclaiming the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors and defended Portugal from Castille, which was reluctant to recognize its independence. Conflict with Castille ended with a peace Treaty (1143), evidence that Afonso I could make peace as well as wage war. Afonso consolidated Portugal's Catholic identity, pledging that he and the nation would serve the Church. Reconquered territories were settled with a Christian population, guarded by members of the military orders. Within less than 20 years of Afonso's death, Portugal was defined more or less by its present borders, making Portugal one of the oldest 'nation-states', since countries such as Spain, France, Italy and Germany were not unified until much later. Afonso I left his mark on the map of Europe. The impetus created by his conquest of the Southern Iberian peninsular, and by the process of settling that region, would later continue to drive and to inspire Portuguese imperial expansion, as, subsequently, the Kingdom acquired a large overseas empire.

 

Life

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Afonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

 

Birth of the Kingdom of Portugal

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he won an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but a kingdom in its own right. He then convened the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego (at which he would have been given the crown by the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm this independence), although this is likely to be a seventeenth century embellishment of Portuguese history.

 

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal

 

Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. IPA /ɐ'fõsu ẽ'ʁikɨʃ/), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu, 1109, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León.

 

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

 

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy, whose mother was daughter of the Count of Barcelona. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome earldom south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

 

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Dux of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

 

Afonso then turned his arms against the everlasting problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. Next, he assembled the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego, where he was given the crown from the archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.

 

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wedded Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

 

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of Castile and León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

 

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

 

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts of annexation.

 

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he had still sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

 

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that tell that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, as well as that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in king-to-king battle, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

--------------------

Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. IPA /?'fõsu ?'?ik??/), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Guimarães, 1109?, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León.

Contents

[hide]

 

* 1 Life

* 2 Scientific research

* 3 Ancestors

* 4 Descendants

* 5 See also

* 6 Bibliography

* 7 References

 

[edit] Life

 

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

 

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy, whose mother was daughter of the Count of Barcelona. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome earldom south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

 

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Dux of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

Portuguese Royalty

House of Burgundy

Afonso Henriques (Afonso I)

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon

* Infante Sancho (future Sancho I)

* Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders

 

Sancho I

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile

* Infanta Sancha

* Infanta Constança

* Infante Afonso (future Afonso II)

* Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell

* Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders

* Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara

* Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark

* Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile

 

Afonso II

 

Children include

 

* Infante Sancho (future Sancho II)

* Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III)

* Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark

* Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

 

Sancho II

Afonso III

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Branca

* Infante Dinis (future Denis I)

* Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre

* Infanta Maria

* Infanta Sancha

 

Denis

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile

* Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)

 

Afonso IV

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile

* Infante Pedro (future Peter I)

* Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon

 

Peter I

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa

* Infante Fernando (future Ferdinand I)

* Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque

* Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos

* Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes

* John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I) (natural son)

 

Ferdinand I

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Beatrice, Queen of Castile and Leon (future Beatrice I of Portugal)

 

Beatrice (disputed queen)

 

Children include

 

* Miguel of Trastámara

 

Afonso then turned his arms against the everlasting problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. Next, he assembled the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego, where he was given the crown from the archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.

 

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wedded Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

 

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of Castile and León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

 

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

 

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts of annexation.

 

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he had still sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

 

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that tell that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, as well as that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in king-to-king battle, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

 

[edit] Scientific research

 

In July 2006, the opening of the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) with scientific proposes conducted by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain), provoked widespread preoccupation among some sectors of the Portuguese society and IPPAR- Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony), with the government halting the opening due to the importance of the king in the nation's formation by requesting more protocols from the scientific team.[1]

 

[edit] Ancestors

Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

 

Helie of Semur

 

Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Barcelona

 

Gisela of Lluca

 

Ferdinand I of Castile and León

 

Sancha of León

 

Munio Muñoz, Count of Bierzo

 

Muniadona Muñoz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry, Duke of Burgundy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sibyl (Beatriz) of Barcelona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alfonso VI of Castile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jimena Muñoz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry, Count of Portugal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theresa, Countess of Portugal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afonso I of Portugal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[edit] Descendants

 

Afonso married in 1146 Mafalda or Maud of Savoy (1125-1158), daughter of Amadeo III, Count of Savoy, and Mafalda of Albon.

Name Birth Death Notes

By Maud of Savoy (1125-1158; married in 1146)

Henrique March 5, 1147 1147

Mafalda 1148 c. 1160

Urraca c. 1151 1188 married to King Ferdinand II of León

Sancho 1154 March 26, 1212 Succeeded him as 2nd King of Portugal

Teresa 1157 1218 married to Philip I of Flanders and after his death to Eudes III of Burgundy

João 1160 1160

Sancha 1160 1160

By Elvira Gálter

Urraca Afonso c. 1130 ? Natural daughter. Married Pedro Afonso Viegas.

--------------------

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Afonso I

King of Portugal

Reign July 26, 1139 – 6 December 1185

Coronation July 26, 1139

Predecessor Henry, Count of Portugal (de jure)

Teresa, Countess of Portugal (de facto)

Successor Sancho I

Consort Maud of Savoy

among others...

Issue

Urraca, Queen of León

Sancho I

Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders

House Capetian House of Burgundy

Father Henry, Count of Portugal

Mother Teresa of León

Born July 25, 1109

Coimbra

Died December 6, 1185 (aged 76)

Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal

Burial Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, District of Coimbra, Portugal

 

Afonso I (Coimbra, 1109, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, achieving its independence from León and doubling its area with the Reconquista.

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

 

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of León wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

Tomb of Afonso Henriques in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra.

 

From this marriage several children were born, but only one son, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") survived. The boy, born 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

Portuguese Royalty

House of Burgundy

Afonso Henriques (Afonso I)

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Mafalda

* Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon

* Infante Sancho (future Sancho I)

* Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy

 

Sancho I

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile

* Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer

* Infanta Constança

* Infante Afonso (future Afonso II)

* Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell

* Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders

* Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara

* Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark

* Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile

 

Afonso II

 

Children include

 

* Infante Sancho (future Sancho II)

* Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III)

* Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark

* Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

 

Sancho II

Afonso III

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Branca, Viscountess of Huelgas

* Infante Dinis (future Denis I)

* Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre

* Infanta Maria

* Infanta Sancha

 

Denis

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile

* Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)

 

Afonso IV

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile

* Infante Pedro (future Peter I)

* Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon

 

Peter I

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa

* Infante Fernando (future Ferdinand I)

* Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque

* Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos

* Infante Dinis, Lord of Villar-Dompardo

* John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I) (natural son)

 

Ferdinand I

 

Children include

 

* Infanta Beatrice, Queen of Castile and Leon (future Beatrice I of Portugal)

 

Beatrice (disputed queen)

 

Children include

 

* Infante Miguel of Castile and Portugal

 

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León, but an independent kingdom in its own right. The first assembly of the estates-general convened at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

 

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighboring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

 

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

 

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

 

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese attempts at annexation.

 

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. Afonso died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

 

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

 

[edit] Scientific research

 

In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR – Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2]

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal

--------------------

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

 

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León and Castile, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

--------------------

BIOGRAPHY: b. 1109/11, Guimarães, Port.

d. Dec. 6, 1185, Coimbra

also called Afonso Henriques, byname AFONSO THE CONQUEROR, Portuguese AFONSO O CONQUISTADOR, the first king of Portugal (1139-85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139).

Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso's father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against the Muslims (1095-1112). Henry married Alfonso VI's illegitimate daughter, Teresa, who governed Portugal from the time of her husband's death (1112) until her son Afonso came of age. She refused to cede her power to Afonso, but his party prevailed in the Battle of São Mamede, near Guimarães (1128). Though at first obliged as a vassal to submit to his cousin Alfonso VII of Leon, Afonso assumed the title of king in 1139.

By victory in the Battle of Ourique (1139) he was able to impose tribute on his Muslim neighbours; and in 1147 he further captured Santarém and, availing himself of the services of passing crusaders, successfully laid siege to Lisbon. He carried his frontiers beyond the Tagus River, annexing Beja in 1162 and Évora in 1165; in attacking Badajoz, he was taken prisoner but then released. He married Mafalda of Savoy and associated his son, Sancho I, with his power. By the time of his death he had created a stable and independent monarchy.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

--------------------

Afonso I of Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Afonso I (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu, 1109, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León.

 

Life

 

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

 

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

Portuguese Royalty

House of Burgundy

 

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. That he then convened the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of Castile and León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts at annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

[edit]Scientific research

 

In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR- Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2]

[edit]

 

 

--------------------

Afonso I (c. 1109, Coimbra or Guimarães or Viseu – 6 December 1185, Coimbra), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Portuguese: o Conquistador), the Founder (Portuguese: o Fundador) or the Great (Portuguese: o Grande) by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali («the Portuguese») and Ibn-Arrik (son of Henry) by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved its independence from León, in 1139, doubling its area with the Reconquista, which he carried until is death, in 1185, after 46 years of wars against the Moors.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Life

2 Scientific research

3 Ancestors

4 Descendants

5 See also

6 Bibliography

7 References

 

[edit] Life

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León. He was proclaimed King on 25 July 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on 6 December 1185 in Coimbra.

 

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of León wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

 

 

Tomb of Afonso Henriques in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra.From this marriage several children were born, but only one son, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") survived. The boy, born 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León. On 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

 

Portuguese Royalty

House of Burgundy

Afonso Henriques (Afonso I)

Children include

Infanta Mafalda

Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon

Infante Sancho (future Sancho I)

Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy

 

Sancho I

Children include

Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile

Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer

Infanta Constança

Infante Afonso (future Afonso II)

Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell

Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders

Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara

Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark

Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile

 

Afonso II

Children include

Infante Sancho (future Sancho II)

Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III)

Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark

Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

 

Sancho II

Afonso III

Children include

Infanta Branca, Viscountess of Huelgas

Infante Dinis (future Denis I)

Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre

Infanta Maria

Infanta Sancha

 

Denis

Children include

Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile

Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)

 

Afonso IV

Children include

Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile

About Me:

Fundador del Reino de Portugal en 1139.

Conquisto Lisboa de los Arabes y la hizo capital de Portugal

En 1147 Castilla reconoce a Portugal como estado independiente.

 

from "Our Folk" by Albert D Hart, Jr.
Rey de Portugal (1139-1185)

--Other Fields

 

Ref Number: 581

SOURCE NOTES:

LUH6/1828 www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gedlkup/n=royal?royal10143

RESEARCH NOTES:

Count of Portugal 1095-1139. King of Portugal 1139-1185

Afonso I de Portugal

Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

Ir para: navegação, pesquisa

 

Nota: Se foi redirecionado para esta página e não é a que procura, consulte: Afonso Henriques (desambiguação).

 

 

D. Afonso I Armas Reais Portuguesas

 

Monarca de Portugal

Ordem: 1.º Monarca de Portugal

Cognome(s): O Conquistador

Início do Reinado: 5 de Dezembro de 1143

proclamado Rei desde 1139

Término do Reinado: 6 de Dezembro de 1185

Aclamação: 1139

Predecessor: Fundação da nacionalidade

Sucessor: D. Sancho I

Pai: D. Henrique, Conde de Portucale

Mãe: D. Teresa, Infanta de Leão

Data de Nascimento: 25 de Julho de 1109

Local de Nascimento: Guimarães ou Viseu ou Coimbra

Data de Falecimento: 6 de Dezembro de 1185

Local de Falecimento: Coimbra

Local de Enterro: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, Coimbra

Consorte(s): D. Mafalda de Sabóia ou D. Matilde de Sabóia

Príncipe Herdeiro: Infante D. Henrique (filho 1147-1157)

Infante D. Sancho (filho 1157-1185)

Dinastia: Borgonha (Afonsina)

 

Afonso I, mais conhecido pelo seu nome de príncipe, Dom Afonso Henriques, (25 de Julho de 1109 — 6 de Dezembro de 1185) foi o primeiro rei de Portugal, conquistando a independência portuguesa em relação ao Reino de Leão.

 

Em virtude das suas múltiplas conquistas, que ao longo de mais de quarenta anos mais que duplicaram o território que o seu pai lhe havia legado, foi cognominado O Conquistador também é conhecido como O Fundador e O Grande. Os muçulmanos, em sinal

de respeito, chamaram-lhe Ibn-Arrik («filho de Henrique», tradução literal do patronímico Henriques) ou El-Bortukali («o Português»).

Índice

esconder

 

* 1 Subida ao trono

* 2 Reinado

o 2.1 Reconhecimento do reino

o 2.2 Conquistas

o 2.3 Cerco de Badajoz

o 2.4 Morte e legado

o 2.5 Boa relação com judeus

* 3 Ascendência

* 4 Descendência

* 5 Referências

* 6 Ver também

* 7 Ligações externas

 

editar Subida ao trono

 

Afonso Henriques era filho de Henrique de Borgonha, Conde de Portucale e da infanta Teresa de Leão. Há quem defenda que era filho de Egas Moniz. Terá nascido em Agosto de 1109 em Viseu1 2. Tradicionalmente, acredita-se que terá nascido e sido cri

ado em Guimarães, onde viveu até 1128.

O Castelo de Guimarães

 

Em 1120, Afonso tomou uma posição política oposta à da mãe (que apoiava o partido dos Travas), sob a direcção do arcebispo de Braga. Este, forçado a emigrar, levou consigo o infante que em 1122 se armou cavaleiro em Tui.

 

Restabelecida a paz, voltaram ao condado. Entretanto, novos incidentes provocaram a invasão do Condado Portucalense por Afonso VII de Leão e Castela que, em 1127, cercou Guimarães, onde se encontrava Afonso Henriques. Sendo-lhe prometida a lealda

de deste pelo seu aio Egas Moniz, Afonso VII desistiu de conquistar a cidade.

 

Mas alguns meses depois, em 1128, as tropas de Teresa de Leão e Fernão Peres de Trava defrontaram-se com as de Afonso Henriques na batalha de São Mamede, tendo as tropas do infante saído vitoriosas – o que consagrou a sua autoridade no território

portucalense, levando-o a assumir o governo do condado. Consciente da importância das forças que ameaçavam o seu poder, concentrou os seus esforços em negociações junto da Santa Sé com um duplo objectivo: alcançar a plena autonomia da Igreja por

tuguesa e obter o reconhecimento do Reino.

 

Em 1139, depois de uma estrondosa vitória na batalha de Ourique contra um forte contingente mouro, D. Afonso Henriques autoproclamou-se rei de Portugal, com o apoio das suas tropas. Segundo a tradição, a independência foi confirmada mais tarde, n

as míticas cortes de Lamego, quando recebeu a coroa de Portugal do arcebispo de Braga, D. João Peculiar, se bem que estudos recentes questionem a reunião destas cortes.

 

editar Reinado

 

editar Reconhecimento do reino

Estátua de Afonso Henriques em Guimarães

Estátua de Afonso Henriques no Castelo de São Jorge em Lisboa, réplica da original, feita por Soares dos Reis, que se encontra em Guimarães

 

O reconhecimento do Reino de Leão chegou em 1143, com o tratado de Zamora, e deve-se ao desejo de Afonso VII de Leão e Castela em tomar o título de imperador de toda a Hispânia e, como tal, necessitar de reis como vassalos. Desde então, Afonso I

procurou consolidar a independência por si declarada. Fez importantes doações à Igreja e fundou diversos conventos.

 

Procurou também conquistar terreno a sul, povoado então por mouros: Leiria em 1135, Santarém em 1146, Lisboa, Almada e Palmela em 1147, Alcácer em 1160 e depois quase todo o Alentejo, que posteriormente seria recuperado pelos mouros.

 

Em 1179 o papa Alexandre III reconheceu Portugal como país independente e vassalo da Igreja, através da Bula Manifestis Probatum.

 

editar Conquistas

 

Ver artigo principal: Cerco de Lisboa (1147)

Ver artigo principal: Batalha de Sacavém

 

editar Cerco de Badajoz

 

De 1166 a 1168, D. Afonso Henriques apoderara-se de várias praças pertencentes à coroa leonesa. Fernando II de Leão estava a repovoar Ciudad Rodrigo e o português, suspeitando que o seu genro estava a fortificar a cidade para o atacar, enviou um

exército comandado pelo seu filho, o infante D. Sancho, contra aquela praça. O rei leonês foi em auxílio da cidade ameaçada e derrotou as tropas portuguesas, fazendo um grande número de prisioneiros.

 

Em resposta, D. Afonso Henriques entrou pela Galiza, tomou Tui e vários outros castelos, e em 1169 atacou primeiro Cáceres. Depois voltou-se contra Badajoz na posse dos sarracenos, mas que pertenceria a Leão, conforme o acordado no tratado de Sah

agún assinado entre aquele reino e Castela.

 

Não obstante, sem respeitar estas convenções nem os laços de parentesco que o uniam a Fernando, o rei português cercou Badajoz para a conquistar para Portugal. Quando os muçulmanos já estavam cercados na alcáçova, Fernando de Leão apresentou-se c

om as suas hostes e atacou D. Afonso nas ruas da cidade. Percebendo a impossibilidade de manter a luta, Afonso terá tentado fugir a cavalo, mas ao passar pelas portas ter-se-á ferido na coxa contra um dos ferros que a guarneciam. Fernando tratou

o seu sogro prisioneiro com nobreza e generosidade, chamando os seus melhores médicos para o tratar.

 

Esta campanha teve como resultado um tratado de paz entre ambos os reinos, assinado em Pontevedra, em virtude do qual Afonso foi libertado, com a única condição de devolver a Fernando cidades extremenhas(da Extremadura espanhola) tais como Cácere

s, Badajoz, Trujillo, Santa Cruz ,Monfragüe e Montánchez, que havia conquistado a Leão. Estabeleciam-se assim as fronteiras de Portugal com Leão e a Galiza. E mais tarde, quando os muçulmanos sitiaram Santarém, o leonês auxiliou imediatamente o r

ei português.

 

editar Morte e legado

Tumular de Afonso Henriques no Mosteiro de Santa Cruz em Coimbra

 

Após o incidente de Badajoz, a carreira militar de D. Afonso Henriques praticamente terminou. A partir daí, dedicou-se à administração dos territórios com a co-regência do seu filho D. Sancho. Procurou fixar a população, promoveu o municipalismo

e concedeu forais. Contou com a ajuda da ordem religiosa dos cistercienses para o desenvolvimento da economia, predominantemente agrária.

 

O legado do seu reinado foi, entre outros:

 

* A fundação da nacionalidade, reconhecida pelo papado e pelos outros reinos da Europa

* A pacificação interna do reino e alargamento do território através de conquistas aos mouros empurrando as fronteiras do Condado Portucalense para sul.

* A fundação do Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra em 1131

 

O seu túmulo encontra-se no Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, em Coimbra, ao lado do túmulo do filho D. Sancho I.

 

editar Boa relação com judeus

 

O reinado de Afonso Henriques ficou marcado pela tolerância para com os judeus. Estes estavam organizados num sistema próprio, representados politicamente pelo grão-rabino nomeado pelo rei.

 

O grão-rabino Yahia Ben Yahia foi mesmo escolhido para ministro das Finanças de Afonso Henriques, responsável pela coleta de impostos no reino. Com esta escolha teve início uma tradição de escolher judeus para a área financeira e de manter um bom

entendimento com as comunidades judaicas, que foi seguida por seus sucessores.

 

editar Ascendência

Expandir

 

Ancestrais de Afonso I de Portugal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. Roberto II de França

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Roberto I, Duque da Borgonha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. Constança de Arles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Henrique de Borgonha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. Dalmace, Senhor de Semur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Helie de Semur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. Aremburge da Borgonha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Henrique de Borgonha, conde de Portucale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. possivelmente: Sibila de Barcelona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Afonso I de Portugal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. Sancho III de Navarra

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Fernando I de Leão e Castela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25. Mayor de Castela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Afonso VI de Leão e Castela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26. Afonso V de Leão e Castela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. Sancha I de Leão

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27. Elvira Mendes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Teresa de Leão

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. possivelmente: Munio Moniz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Ximena Moniz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. possivelmente: Muniadona Moniz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

editar Descendência

Realeza Portuguesa

Casa de Borgonha

Descendência

Afonso IExpandir

 

Filhos

Infante Henrique

Infanta Mafalda

Infanta Urraca, Rainha de Leão

Infante Sancho (futuro Sancho I)

Infanta Teresa, Condessa de Flandres e Duquesa de Borgonha

Sancho IExpandir

 

Filhos

Infanta Teresa, Rainha de Castela

Infanta Sancha, Senhora de Alenquer

Infanta Constança

Infante Afonso (futuro Afonso II)

Infante Pedro, Conde de Urgell

Infante Fernando, Conde da Flandres

Infanta Branca, Senhora de Guadalajara

Infanta Berengária, Rainha da Dinamarca

Infanta Mafalda, Rainha de Castela

Afonso IIExpandir

 

Filhos

Infante Sancho (futuro Sancho II)

Infante Afonso, Conde de Bolonha (futuro Afonso III)

Infanta Leonor, Rainha da Dinamarca

Infante Fernando, Senhor de Serpa

Sancho IIEsconder

Afonso IIIExpandir

 

Filhos

Infanta Branca, Viscondessa de Huelgas

Infante Dinis (futuro Dinis I)

Infante Afonso, Senhor de Portalegre

Infanta Maria

Infanta Sancha

Dinis IExpandir

 

Filhos

Infanta Constança, Rainha de Castela

Infante Afonso (futuro Afonso IV)

Afonso IVExpandir

 

Filhos

Infanta Maria, Rainha de Castela

Infante Pedro (futuro Pedro I)

Infanta Leonor, Rainha de Aragão

Pedro IExpandir

 

Filhos

Infanta Maria, Marquesa de Tortosa e Princesa de Aragão

Infante Fernando (futuro Fernando I)

Infanta Beatriz, Condessa de Alburquerque

Infante João, Duque de Valência de Campos

Infante Dinis, Senhor de Cifuentes

João, Grão Mestre da Ordem de Avis (futuro João I)

Fernando IExpandir

 

Filhos

Infanta Beatriz, Rainha de Castela e Leão

Beatriz I (de jure)Expandir

 

* Pela sua mulher, Mafalda de Sabóia ou Matilde de Sabóia (1125-1157), que desposou c. 1146:

o D. Henrique (1147-?)

o D. Mafalda de Portugal (1149-1160), teve o seu casamento programado com o rei de Afonso II de Aragão, o que não se efectivou pela morte da infanta

o D. Urraca (1151-1188), casou com o rei Fernando II de Leão

o D. Sancha de Portugal (1153-1159)

o Sancho I de Portugal (1154-1212)

o D. João de Portugal (1156)

o D. Teresa (1157-1218), depois do casamento chamada Matilde ou Mafalda, casou com Filipe I, Conde da Flandres e depois com Eudes III, Duque da Borgonha

* Filha de Elvira Gálter:

o D. Urraca Afonso, senhora de Aveiro (c. 1130-?)

* Outros filhos naturais:

o D. Fernando Afonso, também nomeado D. Afonso de Portugal, alferes-mor do Reino e 12º Grão-Mestre da Ordem dos Hospitalários (1135-1207)

o D. Pedro Afonso (c. 1140-1189)

o D. Teresa Afonso (c. 1135-?)

 

Referências

 

1. ↑ Viseu, Agosto de 1109 - Nasce D. Afonso Henriques, Almeida Fernandes, o primeiro estudo sobre o nascimento do primeiro rei de Portugal, apoiado por historiadores tais como José Mattoso

2. ↑ Obra que defende que D. Afonso Henriques nasceu em Viseu reeditada hoje, Mariana Oliveira, Público, acedido em 30 de Abril de 2007

 

editar Ver também

Commons

O Wikimedia Commons possui uma categoria contendo imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Afonso I de Portugal

Wikisource

O Wikisource tem material relacionado a este artigo: D. Afonso Henriques

 

* Árvore genealógica dos reis de Portugal

* Cruzadas

* D. Jordão

 

editar Ligações externas

 

* Chronica de El-Rei D. Affonso Henriques, Duarte Galvão (1446-1517), ed. Lisboa, 1906, na Biblioteca Nacional Digital (em português)

* Chronica de el-rei D. Affonso Henriques, Duarte Galvão (1446-1517), no site Project Gutenberg (em português)
Took part in the reconquista agenda.

Afonso I (August 1109, Viseu - 6 December 1185, Coimbra), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [?'fõsu ?'?ik??]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, achieving its independence from León and doubling its area with the Reconquista.

 

Life

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

 

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of León wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

 

 

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León, but an independent kingdom in its own right. The first assembly of the estates-general convened at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

 

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighboring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

 

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

 

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

 

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese attempts at annexation.

 

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. Afonso died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

 

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

 

Scientific research

In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR - Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2]
Title: Affonso I "The Conqueror" Henriquez King Of PORTUGAL & THEALGARVES.
KING OF PORTUGAL
Not Married

Alfonso I, Port. Afonso Henriques, 1111?-1185, first king of Portugal, son of Henry of Burgundy. After his father�s death (1112), his mother, Countess Teresa, ruled the country of Portugal with the help of her Spanish favorite, Fernando Pérez, until in 1128 young Alfonso, allying himself with discontented nobles, took power and drove her into Leon with Pérez (Alfonso did not, despite the popular legend, put her in chains at Guimarãis). Beginning as little more than a quasi-independent guerrilla chief, Alfonso spent his life in almost ceaseless fighting against the kings of Leon and Castile and against the Moors to increase his prestige and his territories. In 1139 he defeated the Moors in the battle of Ourique (fought not at Ourique, but at some undetermined place). In 1147 he took Santarém by surprise attack and, with the help of the English, Flemish, and German crusaders, captured Lisbon. Styling himself king after 1139, he put (1143) his lands under papal protection, and Alfonso VII of Castile recognized the title, which was confirmed (1179) by Pope Alexander III. Alfonso�s son Sancho I ascended an established throne. [The Illustrated Columbia Encyclopedia, 1969]

 

Alfonso I (El Conquistador, �the Conqueror�) (1110-85), earliest king of Portugal, was the son of Henry of Burgundy, conqueror and first count of Portugal. He died at Coimbra. [World Wide Illustrated Encyclopedia, 1935]

Hwasa a Duke in 1112. He was the first one to call himself King (1139) of

Portugal.
Rey de Portugal (1139-1185)
BIOGRAPHY: First King of Portugal, from 5 Dec 1143 to 6 Dec 1185.

As an infant, he inherited his father's title, and in 1128 he defeated his

mother, Teresa, in battle, and became the first King of Portugal. He

conquered Santarem and Lisbon from the Muslims in 1147 and secured Portuguese

independence frm Leon in 1139. By the time of his death he had created a

stable and independent monarchy, succeeded by his son, Sancho I.

As an infant, he inherited his father's title, and in 1128 he defeated his

mother, Teresa, in battle, and became the first King of Portugal. He

conquered Santarem and Lisbon from the Muslims in 1147 and secured Portuguese

independence frm Leon in 1139. By the time of his death he had created a

stable and independent monarchy, succeeded by his son, Sancho I.
He succeeded his father in 1112 as dom AFONSO I Conde de Portugal. Ruling through his mother, he overthrew and expelled her from Portugal in 1128. In 1135 he refused to swear homage to Alfonso VII King of Castile, from that time using the title 'Prince of Portugal'. He moved his capital to Coimbra. In 1139 he won a notable victory against the Muslims in Santarem who were reduced to tributary status. He proclaimed himseld dom AFONSO I "the Conqueror" King of Portugal in 1139. His establishment of the archbishopric of Braga gave Portugal ecclesiastical independence. He swore allegiance to the Pope[16]. He expanded his territory to the south, capturing Lisbon in 1147 with the help of a force of English, French and Flemish crusaders[
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